Connect with us

Beginners Guides

Pancakes With Water Vs Milk

Published

on

comparison of pancake ingredients

When it comes to making pancakes, the choice between water and milk is like deciding between a classic novel and a gripping thriller – both have their own allure and impact.

But which one truly reigns supreme in the realm of pancake perfection? Join us as we explore the nuances of flavor, texture, nutrition, and culinary techniques to uncover the secrets behind the ideal pancake batter.

Key Takeaways

  • Pancakes made with milk have a richer flavor and a more well-rounded flavor profile
  • Milk contributes to a softer texture and a more appealing mouthfeel in pancakes
  • Pancakes made with milk are fluffier with a more tender crumb
  • Milk-based pancakes offer more nutritional benefits, including higher protein content, essential fatty acids, and additional vitamins and minerals

Flavor Differences

In our taste test, we found that pancakes made with milk have a slightly richer flavor compared to those made with water. This difference in flavor can be attributed to the fat content and natural sugars found in milk. When milk is used as the liquid base for pancake batter, the result is a more tender and flavorful pancake due to the additional fat and natural sweetness present in the milk.

The fat in milk contributes to a softer texture and a more appealing mouthfeel in the pancakes, enhancing the overall taste experience. Furthermore, the sweetness levels in pancakes made with milk are subtly elevated compared to those made with water. This is because milk contains natural sugars such as lactose, which add a touch of sweetness to the pancakes without the need for additional sugar. The slight increase in sweetness contributes to a more well-rounded flavor profile in the pancakes.

When considering ingredient substitution in pancake recipes, it's important to acknowledge the impact it can have on the flavor and texture of the final product. The use of milk versus water in pancake batter is a prime example of how a simple substitution can significantly influence the overall sensory experience of the dish.

Texture Variation

different tactile surfaces featured

When comparing the texture of pancakes made with milk and those made with water, the differences become evident in the mouthfeel and overall structural integrity of the final product.

The use of milk in pancake batter contributes to a richer mouthfeel and a more tender crumb due to the fat content and proteins present in milk. This results in pancakes that are often fluffier and have a more delicate texture.

Advertisement

Conversely, using water as a substitute for milk can result in pancakes with a slightly denser texture and reduced fluffiness factor. Water lacks the richness and proteins found in milk, which can impact the overall mouthfeel and structural integrity of the pancakes.

Furthermore, the choice of liquid can significantly affect the overall structural integrity of the pancakes. Milk provides additional proteins and sugars, contributing to browning and caramelization during the cooking process, which can lead to a more desirable texture.

When water is used as an ingredient substitution, the lack of these components may result in pancakes that are less moist and have a less uniform texture.

Nutritional Comparison

Comparing the nutritional content of pancakes made with water versus those made with milk reveals significant differences in their respective protein, fat, and calcium levels. When it comes to nutrient content, pancakes made with milk offer several health benefits over those made with water:

  1. Protein: Pancakes made with milk contain a higher protein content than those made with water. Protein is essential for muscle repair and growth, making milk-based pancakes a better option for individuals looking to increase their protein intake.
  2. Fat: Milk adds fat to the pancake batter, resulting in a richer texture and flavor. While this may not be ideal for individuals monitoring their fat intake, it can provide a source of essential fatty acids that are beneficial for overall health.
  3. Calcium: Milk is a significant source of calcium, and pancakes made with milk consequently contain more calcium than those made with water. Calcium is essential for bone health and plays a crucial role in muscle function and nerve transmission.
  4. Additional Nutrients: Milk also provides other essential nutrients such as vitamin D, vitamin B12, and potassium, which aren't present in water. These nutrients contribute to overall health and well-being, making milk-based pancakes a more nutritionally robust choice.

Cooking Techniques

exploring culinary methods and techniques

Exploring the impact of cooking techniques on the nutritional composition of pancakes made with water or milk reveals their potential to influence the overall health benefits of the final dish.

When it comes to cooking pancakes, the choice between water and milk can significantly affect the texture and flavor of the pancakes. Cooking tips and recipe adjustments are essential to optimize the use of water or milk in pancake batter. Incorporating ingredient substitution and taste testing can help determine the best cooking techniques for each liquid.

Advertisement

In terms of cooking tips, when using water, it's crucial to ensure that the batter is mixed thoroughly to achieve a smooth consistency. Additionally, adjusting the amount of water based on the desired thickness of the pancake can impact the final texture.

On the other hand, when using milk, it's important to consider the fat content, as this can influence the richness and tenderness of the pancakes. Recipe adjustments involving the type of milk used, such as whole milk versus skim milk, can also affect the flavor profile and nutritional value. Taste testing throughout the cooking process allows for adjustments to be made, ensuring the desired outcome is achieved.

Recipe Adaptation

Based on our analysis of pancake recipes, adapting the liquid component can significantly alter the texture and flavor of the final dish. When considering recipe modification, especially regarding the liquid component, it's crucial to understand the potential impact on the end product. Here are some key points to consider:

  1. Texture: Swapping water for milk in pancake batter can lead to a richer and creamier texture due to the fat and proteins present in milk.
  2. Flavor: Milk adds a slightly sweet and creamy taste to pancakes, while water may result in a plainer flavor profile.
  3. Rising Agent Interaction: When substituting water for milk, the interaction with the rising agent (baking powder or baking soda) may differ, affecting the fluffiness and overall structure of the pancakes.
  4. Nutritional Value: Milk provides additional nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D, enhancing the nutritional value of the pancakes compared to using water.

Understanding the nuances of ingredient substitution and recipe modification is essential for achieving the desired outcome when adapting pancake recipes. It's important to consider the specific role of each ingredient and how it contributes to the overall quality of the dish.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can Using Water Instead of Milk Affect the Color of the Pancakes?

Using water instead of milk can affect the color of pancakes. The absence of milk's natural sugars and proteins can result in paler pancakes. Additionally, the Maillard reaction, responsible for browning, may be less pronounced with water.

However, the difference in appearance doesn't necessarily impact flavor or texture.

Advertisement

Nutritionally, milk adds protein, fat, and other nutrients, which may be lacking when using water.

Will Using Water Instead of Milk Make the Pancakes Less Fluffy?

Using water instead of milk in pancake batter can indeed affect the fluffiness of the pancakes. Water lacks the fat and proteins found in milk, which can result in less fluffy pancakes.

Additionally, the taste and texture may be altered, as milk contributes to a richer flavor and helps create a softer consistency.

In a side-by-side comparison, the pancakes made with water may exhibit a noticeable difference in fluffiness and overall mouthfeel.

Are There Any Specific Vitamins or Minerals That Are Lost When Using Water Instead of Milk in Pancake Batter?

Using water instead of milk in pancake batter can diminish the overall nutritional value. Milk is a good source of vitamins and minerals, such as calcium, vitamin D, and protein, which are crucial for bone health and overall well-being.

Advertisement

The absence of these nutrients in water can impact the taste and texture of the pancakes. It's essential to consider the nutritional implications when making ingredient substitutions in recipes.

Can Using Water Instead of Milk Affect the Cooking Time or Temperature for the Pancakes?

Using water instead of milk can indeed affect the cooking time and temperature for pancakes. Water evaporates faster than milk, which can result in a quicker cooking time and higher cooking temperature. This can impact the texture and flavor of the pancakes.

The absence of milk's fat and protein content may also affect browning and overall tenderness. Adjusting the heat and closely monitoring the cooking process can help mitigate these differences when using water.

Are There Any Specific Adjustments That Need to Be Made When Using Water Instead of Milk in a Pancake Recipe, Such as Adding More or Less Flour?

When using water instead of milk in a pancake recipe, adjustments to the consistency and flavor may be necessary. It's essential to consider the impact on the flavor profile and the potential need for additional flour to achieve the desired texture.

Does the Cooking Temperature Differ for Pancakes Made with Water vs Milk?

When making pancakes, the cooking perfect pancake temperature does not differ between using water or milk in the batter. Both types of liquid will cook well at the typical pancake temperature of around 375°F, ensuring that your pancakes turn out fluffy and delicious regardless of the liquid used.

Advertisement

Conclusion

In conclusion, after exploring the differences between using water and milk in pancakes, it's clear that the choice of liquid can significantly impact the flavor, texture, and nutritional value of the final product.

While water can result in a lighter, fluffier texture, milk adds richness and depth of flavor.

Ultimately, the decision between water and milk in pancake recipes comes down to personal preference and dietary needs.

So, whether you prefer a light and airy pancake or a richer, creamier one, the choice is yours to make.

Advertisement

Introducing Ron, the home decor aficionado at ByRetreat, whose passion for creating beautiful and inviting spaces is at the heart of his work. With his deep knowledge of home decor and his innate sense of style, Ron brings a wealth of expertise and a keen eye for detail to the ByRetreat team. Ron’s love for home decor goes beyond aesthetics; he understands that our surroundings play a significant role in our overall well-being and productivity. With this in mind, Ron is dedicated to transforming remote workspaces into havens of comfort, functionality, and beauty.

Continue Reading
Advertisement

Beginners Guides

The Best River Cruises in the USA

Embark on the most captivating river cruises in the USA, where each journey holds its own charm and allure – find out which experience will leave you spellbound!

Published

on

By

usa river cruises top notch

As we navigate the vast waters of the United States, it's intriguing to note that there are over 250,000 rivers flowing through the country.

With such an abundance of waterways, it's no wonder that the USA offers some of the most enchanting river cruises in the world. From the historic Mississippi River to the picturesque Columbia River, each journey holds its own charm and allure.

But what truly sets the best river cruises apart? Join us as we uncover the top picks for unforgettable experiences on America's stunning rivers.

Key Takeaways

  • Explore diverse landscapes and histories on the Columbia, Mississippi, Ohio, and Hudson rivers.
  • Enjoy unique experiences like wine culture, paddle wheelers, historic towns, and scenic beauty.
  • Encounter wildlife, local charm, and cultural immersion along these iconic American waterways.
  • Immerse in the beauty of the USA through stunning views, rich heritage, and unforgettable river cruise adventures.

Columbia River Cruise

Beginning on a Columbia River voyage immerses travelers in a rich tapestry of history, nature, and culture along the majestic waterway that meanders through the Pacific Northwest. The Columbia River, stretching 1,240 miles and dividing Oregon and Washington, offers a journey filled with American heritage and scenic beauty. Following in the footsteps of Lewis & Clark, who explored this historic river, passengers on Columbia River cruises can explore key port cities such as Astoria, Portland, and Vancouver. As the ship navigates through the Columbia River Gorge, passengers are treated to stunning views of the Cascade mountain range and opportunities for wildlife sightings.

One of the unique aspects of a Columbia River cruise is the onboard wine culture. Travelers can savor local wines from Oregon and Washington while learning about the winemaking traditions of the region. From bald eagles soaring overhead to sea lions basking on the riverbanks, the Columbia River cruise offers a blend of relaxation, adventure, and cultural enrichment.

Mississippi River Cruise

exploring the mississippi river

Starting a Mississippi River cruise reveals a voyage through history, nature, and culture along the iconic waterway that stretches 2,340 miles from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi River, known for its role in the Civil War, is a popular choice for American river cruises. Paddle wheelers dotting the river offer a unique way to experience its charm. Major ports of call along the Mississippi Cruise include Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, and the vibrant city of New Orleans, each brimming with cultural treasures and history waiting to be explored. From guided tours of Civil War battlefields to leisurely strolls through bustling cities, a Mississippi River cruise caters to diverse interests. One prominent vessel offering this experience is the American Queen Steamboat, ensuring a blend of relaxation and adventure. Wildlife enthusiasts and history buffs alike will delight in the diverse wildlife and stunning scenery that grace the shores of this legendary river.

Highlights Description
Paddle Wheelers Iconic boats offering a unique Mississippi River experience
Ports of Call Explore cities like Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, and New Orleans
Cultural Treasures Discover historical and cultural gems along the river
Guided Tours Explore into Civil War battlefields and other historic sites

Ohio River Adventure

Embarking on an Ohio River exploration reveals a mesmerizing trip through historic towns and cities, rich in cultural heritage and natural beauty. As we cruise along the Ohio River, here are three vivid snapshots of what to expect:

Advertisement

  1. Historic Charm: Picture quaint towns with cobblestone streets and well-preserved architecture lining the riverbanks. Each stop offers a glimpse into the past, showcasing a blend of American history and local heritage.
  2. Scenic Beauty: Imagine the tranquil waters of the Ohio River meandering through lush forests and rolling hills. The landscape changes from bustling cityscapes to serene countryside, providing a visual feast for nature lovers.
  3. Cultural Immersion: Envision experiencing the vibrant culture of the region through local festivals, art galleries, and culinary delights. The Ohio River not only connects us with the beauty of the land but also with the warmth and hospitality of its people.

Embarking on an Ohio River adventure isn't just a journey; it's an exploration of a region steeped in history, culture, and natural wonders.

Hudson River Exploration

hudson river history explored

Begin on an enthralling journey along the Hudson River, where history, culture, and natural beauty intertwine to create an unforgettable exploration experience.

The 315-mile-long Hudson River flows through New York, bordering New Jersey, and holds a significant spot in American history as a key player in the American Revolution. This iconic river also served as inspiration for the renowned Hudson River School of Landscape Painting. As you cruise along, you'll pass by the prestigious West Point Military Academy, adding a touch of prestige to your voyage.

Starting from the Adirondack Mountains and winding down to the New York Harbor, the Hudson River offers a diverse landscape to explore. Don't miss the chance to immerse yourself in the charm of the Hudson Valley, with its picturesque towns, historic sites linked to the American Revolution, and the breathtaking fall foliage that paints the landscape in vibrant hues.

Get ready to uncover the hidden gems and rich heritage of the Hudson River on this unforgettable journey.

Napa River Wine Tour

On a sensory journey through the vineyard-lined banks of the Napa River, where wine enthusiasts can indulge in a blend of scenic beauty and exquisite flavors. Commencing on a Napa River wine tour offers an immersive experience that combines the tranquility of the river with the opulence of Napa Valley's renowned vineyards.

As we cruise along, here are three things that make this journey truly remarkable:

Advertisement

  1. Onboard Experiences: Picture yourself lounging on the deck of a luxurious river cruise ship, surrounded by the lush greenery of the Napa Valley. Engage in interactive culinary demos where top chefs showcase their skills, adding a gastronomic dimension to your wine tour.
  2. Wine Tasting: Raise a glass to the panoramic views of the river while sampling a variety of world-class wines produced in the region. Let the flavors dance on your palate as you savor each sip, immersing yourself in the rich wine culture of Napa Valley.
  3. Tranquil Beauty: The Napa River meanders gracefully through the landscape, offering a serene backdrop for your wine tour. Take in the sights of native wildlife thriving along the riverbanks, enhancing the peaceful ambiance as you enjoy gourmet food paired perfectly with fine wines.

Conclusion

As we bid farewell to the winding rivers and lush landscapes of the USA, our hearts are etched with memories of history, culture, and breathtaking beauty.

Like a gentle current guiding us through time, these river cruises have connected us to the soul of America, leaving an indelible mark on our hearts.

Let the echoes of paddle wheels and the whispers of nature linger, inviting us to return and explore once more.

Bon voyage, until we meet again on the waters of adventure.

Continue Reading

Beginners Guides

The Ultimate Thrill Waterpark Guide: 3 Must-Know Tips

Seeking to make the most of your Thrill Waterpark visit? Discover essential tips to enhance your experience and uncover a game-changing strategy that will elevate your day like never before!

Published

on

By

maximize your waterpark fun

We understand what you might be thinking – waterparks are fun, but planning for them can be overwhelming.

However, fear not, as we have you covered with essential tips to guarantee your visit to Thrill Waterpark is a breeze. From securing complimentary lockers to indulging in free food options, these insights will help you make the most of your day.

But there's one more important tip that could truly elevate your experience – curious to find out?

Key Takeaways

  • Arrive early for locker access and a hassle-free experience.
  • Prioritize slide rides before 11 am or after 3 pm to avoid crowds.
  • Utilize the unlimited drink package for convenience and savings.
  • Combine excitement with safety measures for a fun-filled day at the waterpark.

Insider Tips for Maximizing Fun

Arriving early at Thrill Waterpark sets the stage for an exhilarating day by making sure you secure a locker for your valuables before diving into all the fun slides and rides. This simple step allows you to move freely without worrying about your belongings.

Once you've stashed your valuables, head over to the Snack Shack for a delicious treat. Indulge in the complimentary food options like salads, sandwiches, and the popular Shack Burger to keep your energy up for the exciting adventures ahead.

For those seeking a more luxurious experience, booking a private cabana is a fantastic option. Enjoy attendant service and easy access to all park attractions, making your day even more special.

Advertisement

To maximize your time on the slides, aim to ride before 11 am or after 3 pm to avoid long wait times. Additionally, take advantage of the unlimited drink package at the bar for convenience and savings throughout the day. These insider tips will make sure shorter wait times and more time enjoying the thrilling rides at Thrill Waterpark.

Safety Precautions for Waterpark Enthusiasts

waterpark safety guidelines summary

Ensuring a safe and enjoyable experience for all guests, Thrill Waterpark implements stringent safety precautions to protect waterpark enthusiasts of all ages. When visiting our waterpark, safety is our top priority, and we want you to have a worry-free and thrilling time. Here are some key safety measures we've in place:

  1. Life Jackets: Feel secure in the pools and attractions as we provide life jackets for all visitors, ensuring safety even for non-swimmers.
  2. Height Restrictions: To prevent accidents, certain slides enforce height and weight restrictions, creating a safe experience for all guests.
  3. Trained Lifeguards: Our trained lifeguards are strategically stationed throughout the waterpark to monitor activities and respond promptly to any emergencies that may arise.
  4. Safety Inspections: Rest assured, all slides and attractions undergo regular safety inspections to meet industry standards, ensuring a secure environment for all guests.

At Thrill Waterpark, we combine excitement with safety, allowing you to focus on the fun while we take care of your well-being.

Essential Packing List for Waterpark Adventures

When gearing up for your waterpark adventure, make sure to pack these essential items to enhance your experience and stay comfortable throughout the day. Start with your favorite swimwear to make the most of the water attractions.

Don't forget sunscreen to protect your skin from the sun's rays, sunglasses to shield your eyes, and a waterproof phone case to capture all the fun moments. Staying important is vital, so bring a refillable water bottle.

Consider packing a beach towel for lounging or drying off, and water shoes for walking around comfortably. A small backpack can be handy for carrying essentials like sunscreen, snacks, and personal items.

With this packing list, you'll be well-prepared for a day of excitement at the waterpark. So, grab your gear and get ready for a thrilling adventure filled with splashes and smiles!

Advertisement

Conclusion

So grab your sunscreen, strap on your sandals, and get ready for a day filled with thrills and excitement at Thrill Waterpark.

With these insider tips, you'll be sliding, splashing, and soaking up the fun in no time.

Don't forget to pack your sense of adventure and get ready to make unforgettable memories at this ultimate waterpark destination.

Let the waves of fun wash over you as you plunge into the ultimate thrill experience!

Advertisement

Continue Reading

Beginners Guides

What to Wear on Your Viking River Cruise

Adventurous voyagers, discover the essential wardrobe tips for a Viking River Cruise that will elevate your experience to new heights!

Published

on

By

viking river cruise attire

When it comes to packing for a Viking River Cruise, remember the old adage, 'Dress for success.' Choosing the right attire can make all the difference in your overall experience.

From exploring charming cities to enjoying onboard activities, finding the perfect balance between comfort and style is key.

So, what exactly should you wear on your Viking River Cruise? Let's decrypt the mystery together and make sure you're prepared for whatever adventures lie ahead on this unique voyage.

Key Takeaways

  • Pack versatile bottoms and tops for different occasions onboard.
  • Choose dresses that offer comfort and style for day and night.
  • Select appropriate footwear for various activities during the cruise.
  • Include essential outerwear and accessories for added flair and functionality.

Essential Bottoms for Viking River Cruise

When preparing for your Viking River Cruise, selecting a variety of essential bottoms is important for versatility and comfort during your journey. Viking River Cruises offer diverse activities and events, making it crucial to pack bottoms that cater to different occasions.

Opt for a mix of bottoms such as one blue jean, one black jean, loose casual-to-formal pants, a skirt, and denim shorts to make you're ready for any event or outing. Having a range of bottoms not only allows you to be comfortable throughout the cruise but also enables you to create various stylish outfits by mixing and matching with different tops.

Consider the climate of the destinations you'll visit and the activities planned for the cruise to pack bottoms that are suitable for both style and comfort. By packing versatile bottoms, you can effortlessly shift from casual daytime explorations to formal evening events on your Viking River Cruise.

Advertisement

Stylish Tops to Pack for Cruise

fashionable cruise outfit essentials

For a stylish and versatile wardrobe on your Viking River Cruise, make sure to pack a selection of casual t-shirts, tank tops, blouses, and silk tank tops that can easily mix and match with your bottoms for various occasions.

Opt for 2-3 casual t-shirts and 2-3 tank tops for daytime comfort and versatility. Include a few blouses and a silk tank top to add a touch of elegance to your cruise outfits. Choose flowy tops and loose-style blouses for a relaxed yet stylish look that will keep you comfortable throughout your journey.

Look for breathable and lightweight fabrics that will allow you to stay cool and chic as you explore the river cruise destinations. Versatile tops that can be easily paired with different bottoms will give you the flexibility to create various outfit combinations without overpacking.

Prioritize comfort and style by selecting tops that align with the casual elegance of a Viking River Cruise.

Versatile Dresses for River Cruise

Let's seamlessly shift our focus to exploring the versatility of dresses for a Viking River Cruise, from casual to elegant styles that offer comfort and chic options for various occasions. When packing for your river adventure, opt for dresses made from lightweight fabrics that allow you to move freely during excursions. Choosing solid colors or subtle patterns will give you easy mix-and-match options throughout your trip. Don't forget to pack a variety of dress lengths to suit different events on board, from knee-length for a casual day exploring charming towns to elegant maxi dresses for special evenings. Consider bringing a flowy dress for a relaxed look or an A-line dress for a more tailored appearance. Here's a quick guide to the versatile dress styles you can consider for your Viking River Cruise:

Versatile Dress Styles Description Occasions to Wear
Knee-Length Dresses Casual and comfortable for daytime outings Exploring ports and towns
Maxi Dresses Elegant and sophisticated for evenings Dinner and onboard events
Flowy Dresses Effortless and chic for a relaxed look Leisurely days onboard
A-line Dresses Stylish and versatile for various occasions Excursions and activities
Solid Color Dresses Classic and easy to mix and match Anytime during the cruise

Footwear Selection Guide for Cruise

cruise shoe shopping tips

Exploring the right footwear options for your Viking River Cruise involves selecting comfortable and stylish shoes suitable for both onshore activities and onboard events. When it comes to footwear selection for your river cruise, consider the following:

  • Sneakers or Walking Sandals: Opt for comfortable sneakers or walking sandals for onshore activities, excursions, and sightseeing to guarantee you can explore comfortably for long periods.
  • Flats: Pack a pair of flats for casual evenings and leisurely walks around the ship to keep your feet happy and relaxed.
  • Nicer Sandals: Bring along a pair of nicer sandals for dinners and more formal occasions onboard, adding a touch of elegance to your evening attire.
  • Breathable Options: Make sure your chosen footwear is breathable and suitable for extended wear to prevent discomfort during your cruise adventures.

Remember to break in your new shoes before the trip to avoid any potential discomfort or blisters while enjoying the various destinations on your Viking River Cruise. Choose footwear that offers both style and comfort to make the most of your cruise experience.

Outerwear and Accessories Essentials

When preparing for your Viking River Cruise, selecting essential outerwear and accessories is crucial for staying comfortable and stylish throughout your journey.

Advertisement

Opt for versatile outerwear like a loose sweater, black denim jacket, and a green cargo jacket that offer various layering options. These pieces can be mixed and matched easily with your clothing, ensuring you're prepared for changing weather conditions during the cruise.

Accessories such as a hat, day backpack, and clutch are must-have essentials that add flair to your outfits. Consider the activities and excursions planned for your trip to determine the type of outerwear and accessories you'll need.

Conclusion

As we prepare for our Viking River Cruise, the excitement builds with each carefully selected outfit. From essential bottoms to stylish tops, versatile dresses, and comfortable footwear, they're ready for any adventure that comes our way.

But as they set sail, little do they realize the surprises awaiting them on the horizon. Join them on this stylish and comfortable journey, where every outfit tells a story and every moment is an unforgettable experience.

Advertisement

Continue Reading
Advertisement
Advertisement

Affiliate Disclaimer
As an affiliate, we may earn a commission from qualifying purchases. We get commissions for purchases made through links on this website from Amazon and other third parties.

Advertisement

Vetted

Advertisement

Trending